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Fibrogastroscopy (FGS) - this is an examination of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum (the first
bend of the small intestine). A thin flexible tube (fibrogastroscopy) is passed through the mouth, going through the esophagus and reaching the stomach and the duodenum, looking for diseases of these organs such as:  gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulceration and duodenal ulcers, benign and malignant tumours. Fibrogastroscopy allows specialists to take samples for the histopathology (for diagnostic verification), as well as to perform various therapeutic procedures (for proper treatment).


Fibrogastroscopy is appointed after an examination by a specialist and is carried out mostly with the following indications: difficulty in swallowing, swelling and pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, vomiting, etc.


The examination is taken on an empty stomach, so the patient should not eat for at least 10 hours before the procedure. It is a short examination that lasts about 5-15 minutes.
At the beginning, the patient's mouth and throat are anaesthetized with local anaesthesia. A protector is placed in the mouth in order not to injure the instrument, and it gradually passes through it into the esophagus, the stomach and the beginning of the duodenum. The procedure is absolutely painless. Possible slight feeling of nausea.


Fibrocolonoscopy is an endoscopic examination of the lower part of the digestive system - the rectum and different sections of the colon. A thin, highly flexible tube with a fiber-optic system (colonoscope) is passed gently into your back passage (anus) and manoeuvred around the bowel. This will give the doctor a clear detailed image of your bowel and if necessary, allows him to take biopsies or perform various therapeutic procedures.


A screening colonoscopy is recommended every 10 years beginning at age 50 or over for adults without other risk factors. The aim of the examination is diagnostics of diseases of the rectum and colon in case of various symptoms: bleeding, pain and swelling in the lower abdomen, frequent episodes of constipation or diarrhea, unreasonable weight loss, etc.


Before carrying out the colonoscopy, the colon should be thoroughly cleaned. This requires specific preparation. Intake of solid foods should be stopped no later than 24 hours before the procedure. The   day before the examination, the patients should take purgative medication, prescribed by a doctor.
The duration of the procedure is usually 20 - 40 minutes. During the procedure, air is pumped into the cleaned-out colon to keep it open so that the colonoscope could pass smoothly through the different parts of the colon, allowing the doctors get the best pictures. The air pressure may cause some discomfort. That’s why it is recommended to carry out the examination under intravenous anesthesia (short-term general anesthesia). After the end of the procedure the patient should be observed for about two hours. After the procedure, it is possible that you may have bloating and abdominal pain or scarce bleeding.